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The Types of Iron Cast in a Foundry

While we are well-versed with the role of iron in the industrial sector, what’s often confusing is the different types of iron and iron alloys – cast iron, ductile iron, and wrought iron to begin with. It all begins with a metallurgist listing down his requirements – mostly mechanical, and then an alloy is suggested. Followed by the above comes the choice of finalising a certain type of cast iron in the nearest casting foundry.

casting foundry for cast iron manufacturing

‘Cast iron, the term is used for the iron alloys cast in any foundry, and ‘ductile-iron is one such alloy. Let’s find out what types of iron are cast in a foundry?

  • White Cast Iron: Known for its hardness and abrasion resistance, this alloy cools quicker than other cast irons. It’s often used in bearings and other high-friction applications.

  • Ductile Cast Iron: An alloy of iron developed in 1948, ductile cast iron is a very important alloy for ferrous foundries. Being much less brittle than other cast irons makes this one of the most preferred alloys in cast iron manufacturing.

  • Malleable Cast Iron: This alloy is the predecessor of ductile iron, famously used and produced in any cast iron foundry. It is a white cast iron that is heat-treated for a very long period. It is used for small, thin castings under controlled heat conditions as it is a lot less brittle.

  • Gray Cast Iron: The standard form of “cast iron” is the great cast iron. It has a graphitic microstructure giving it an excellent vibration damping capacity and great machinability. Things that are made from grey cast iron. White and grey cast irons are extremely similar castings. What sets them apart is their colouring, which is only evident when it fractures.

Mechanical Properties Of Cast Iron

Based on the mechanical properties, the applications of each type of iron are decided. Different types of iron are suitable for different applications. Some of the important mechanical properties of cast iron include hardness, ductility, elasticity, malleability, tensile strength, and fatigue strength.  

Cast iron is very beneficial for its ability to be moulded into different shapes. The affordable cost can also be added to the list of advantages. To make the cast iron usable in a wide variety of applications, it is often altered by changing the composition depending on the requirements of the casting foundry.

Casting Process Of Cast Iron Foundry

The process of casting is not as simple as it sounds. It includes many steps like making the patterns, melting the metal, pouring the molten metal, cooling it, removing it, cleaning all the parts, and then the final process of examination. The unadulterated cast iron alloy is brought to the cast iron foundry. Silica sand is used for making the moulds because of their capacity to withstand very high heat. 

The iron is cast into different patterns in these moulds. Then, it is extracted and sanded to achieve a precise shape. Nowadays, a large number of castings are sent to milling centres for better finishing. A casting foundry may specialise in manufacturing only a special part like an automotive part or produce multiple parts. Some foundries specialise in making parts for the aerospace industries, and others make smaller-scale cast iron pieces.


Govind Steel Company Limited is a 55-year-old company that has continually grown to become one of the largest and leading foundries for Grey Iron Castings and Ductile Iron Castings in India, with an installed capacity of 24, 000 MT. If you have any questions about what we offer for customers or businesses, email us directly at or simply visit our website