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The Casting Process Of An Iron Foundry

On the surface, the process of casting may come off as a simple task. It is just about pouring the liquid metal into a mould and set it. But over the years, the casting process has evolved into various types and intricate processes.

The first process of casting dates back to the 4th century in China. Since then, it has rolled into many innovations and development. In India, casting foundries flourished, providing the best iron products for commercial use.

A casting foundry follows the casting’s essential processes and decides its type based on the requirement and the scale of production. And we will discuss all of it here.

The Iron Casting Process

The iron casting process is carried out in a factory called cast iron foundry. The casting process is carried out in the following steps-

1. Melting

In the cast iron foundry, the primary metal or iron, internal scrap, external scrap, and alloying metal are melted in a furnace. The primary metal or virgin material is the one that is used to form an alloy. The furnace is heated above the melting point of the primary metal.

2. Degassing

If the hydrogen concentration is higher in the mixture, it can increase the final product’s porosity. Higher porosity degrades the value of the product. Reducing the amount of hydrogen is called Degassing.
Generally, this is done by passing argon or nitrogen over the melt.

3. Moulding

Moulding is usually done with a single-piece pattern or split pattern. The molten metal is poured into the moulds to get the desired shape of the final product. The patterns in the mould are made of wood, plastic, metal, or wax.
The construction of moulds depends on the type of molten metal, type of foundry, the casting size, the required quality of the final product.

4. Pouring And Degating

The molten iron is carefully poured into the mould by automatic machines or giant ladles. Once the metal solidifies, the runners, gates, risers, and heads are removed from the mould using cutting torches, bandsaw, and ceramic cutoff blades. This process is called degating.

5. Blasting

The blasting process removes the unwanted debris that is still attached to the solidified material. Usually, this involves propelling tiny grinding balls over the material’s surface to remove unwanted debris like sand.
The tiny grinding balls are made up of glass beads, walnut shells, iron, aluminium oxides, steel, baking powder, etc.

6. Finishing

Finally, the material is formed into the perfect dimensions by sanding or machining to even the rough edges. The product is now ready after clearing all the processes in the cast iron foundry.


Casting isn’t just of one type. Other types include sand casting, die casting, low-pressure casting, gravity die casting, centrifugal casting, vacuum die casting, continual casting lost foam casting, etc.
The casting foundry employs the type of casting according to the requirement of the final product. The processing time also varies according to the type of casting used.
We will assist you to know more about the cast iron foundry on

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The Applications of Different Types of Cast & Ductile Iron

As a 55-year old cast iron foundry in Kolkata, we have researched and studied the glorious history of iron thoroughly. The transformation of iron from 3,000 years ago to today is revolutionary and the processes are beyond commendable. Centuries have been spent by the blacksmiths until the invention of the cast iron in the industrial age.

Ever since then, cast iron and ductile iron have evolved its new form while progressing in the terms of its composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties. While there are multiple applications for the modern-day iron made in the cast iron foundries, some of them are listed below:

Grey Iron Applications

Grey cast iron is a type of iron found in castings known for its grey color and appearance caused by graphite fractures in the material. It is mainly used to make cylinder heads, gas burners, enclosures, and housings because of the key characteristics of gray iron and its ability to resist wear and tear, especially when lubrication supply is limited.

Ductile Iron Applications

Owing to its multiple benefits, ductile iron is used to make heavy-duty gears, automotive and truck suspension components, hydraulic components, and automobile door hinges. The fact that ductile iron can be broken down into different grades, yields strength, and is wear-resistant, makes ductile iron, the prime choice. Its ductility makes it another great choice for great designs.

White Iron Applications

Mainly used for mixer paddles, liner plates for ball mills, augers and dies, coal chutes, and wire guides for drawing wires, White Iron is wear and abrasion-resistant. The process that is used to make white iron results in a brittle material that is very resistant to wear and abrasions.

Malleable Iron Applications

Through an annealing heat treatment, the brittle structure as the first cast is transformed into the malleable form. Malleable Iron is the iron that has the ability to retain and store lubricants, the non-abrasive wear particles, and the porous surface which traps other abrasive debris. Malleable iron is used for heavy-duty bearing surfaces, chains, sprockets, connecting rods, drive train and axle components, railroad rolling stock, and farm and construction machinery.

Compacted Graphite Iron Applications

As the name suggests, compacted graphite iron is famously used in commercial applications. Similar to ductile iron, compacted graphite iron is produced by adding magnesium to a desulfurized base iron. The combination of both the properties of creates a higher strength and thermal conductivity product.

To know more about the functioning of a cast iron foundry or the various applications of cast iron, contact and follow

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Choosing Between Ductile Iron And Traditional Cast Iron

Each casting foundry of India is known either for their Ductile Iron or the Traditional Cast Iron or both. While both the types are cast in the same foundry, their properties and varied and how. From applications to different resistance-levels, both the iron types play a pivotal role in the construction industry.Choosing a suitable kind for a particular job is extremely important and knowing the basics, tend to help. Below is a list of few basic differences between Ductile Iron and Traditional Cast Iron.

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