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The Types of Iron Cast in a Foundry

While we are well-versed with the role of iron in the industrial sector, what’s often confusing is the different types of iron and iron alloys – cast iron, ductile iron, and wrought iron to begin with. It all begins with a metallurgist listing down his requirements – mostly mechanical, and then an alloy is suggested. Followed by the above comes the choice of finalising a certain type of cast iron in the nearest casting foundry.

casting foundry for cast iron manufacturing

‘Cast iron, the term is used for the iron alloys cast in any foundry, and ‘ductile-iron is one such alloy. Let’s find out what types of iron are cast in a foundry?

  • White Cast Iron: Known for its hardness and abrasion resistance, this alloy cools quicker than other cast irons. It’s often used in bearings and other high-friction applications.

  • Ductile Cast Iron: An alloy of iron developed in 1948, ductile cast iron is a very important alloy for ferrous foundries. Being much less brittle than other cast irons makes this one of the most preferred alloys in cast iron manufacturing.

  • Malleable Cast Iron: This alloy is the predecessor of ductile iron, famously used and produced in any cast iron foundry. It is a white cast iron that is heat-treated for a very long period. It is used for small, thin castings under controlled heat conditions as it is a lot less brittle.

  • Gray Cast Iron: The standard form of “cast iron” is the great cast iron. It has a graphitic microstructure giving it an excellent vibration damping capacity and great machinability. Things that are made from grey cast iron. White and grey cast irons are extremely similar castings. What sets them apart is their colouring, which is only evident when it fractures.

Mechanical Properties Of Cast Iron

Based on the mechanical properties, the applications of each type of iron are decided. Different types of iron are suitable for different applications. Some of the important mechanical properties of cast iron include hardness, ductility, elasticity, malleability, tensile strength, and fatigue strength.  

Cast iron is very beneficial for its ability to be moulded into different shapes. The affordable cost can also be added to the list of advantages. To make the cast iron usable in a wide variety of applications, it is often altered by changing the composition depending on the requirements of the casting foundry.

Casting Process Of Cast Iron Foundry

The process of casting is not as simple as it sounds. It includes many steps like making the patterns, melting the metal, pouring the molten metal, cooling it, removing it, cleaning all the parts, and then the final process of examination. The unadulterated cast iron alloy is brought to the cast iron foundry. Silica sand is used for making the moulds because of their capacity to withstand very high heat. 

The iron is cast into different patterns in these moulds. Then, it is extracted and sanded to achieve a precise shape. Nowadays, a large number of castings are sent to milling centres for better finishing. A casting foundry may specialise in manufacturing only a special part like an automotive part or produce multiple parts. Some foundries specialise in making parts for the aerospace industries, and others make smaller-scale cast iron pieces.


Govind Steel Company Limited is a 55-year-old company that has continually grown to become one of the largest and leading foundries for Grey Iron Castings and Ductile Iron Castings in India, with an installed capacity of 24, 000 MT. If you have any questions about what we offer for customers or businesses, email us directly at or simply visit our website

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The World of Expendable and Permanent Moulds in Iron Casting

The true pioneers of Industrial Development and the improving standard of living are the foundries – Metal, Iron or Ductile Iron Foundries across the nation. But do we really understand the actual functioning of the same?
Let us debunk this alien concept by understanding the basics of metal castings and different moulds used.

The process where the molten metal is poured into the mould containing a hollow cavity to get any geometrical shape one wants is casting. This process can be further can be divided into two types – Expendable or Semi-permanent Mould and Permanent Mould. Let us find out what are their functions:

Permanent moulds are made of metal with a high melting point over the metal that needs to be cast. The main purpose of using these permanent cores is because they are simple to use and can be reused. Such moulds are generally used for both low-temperature alloys and iron. The castings from this method have thin walls as they are produced with “close tolerance”. Castings made this way are fine-grained and dense with a smoother surface finish. A few common types of permanent castings are:

  • Low-pressure Casting
  • Gravity Casting
  • Die Casting

Semi-permanent moulds are the ones where the cores are expendable and can result in more complex shapes. Usually, sand, plaster and ceramic is used as the core as it allows the possibility of being taken out or broken down to get the casting out. Such moulds are generally bound with a bonding agent that improves its properties and creates complex, intricate castings. A few of the examples are:

  • Sand Casting
  • Plaster Moulding
  • Shell Moulding
  • Ceramic Moulding
  • Investment Casting

Among the foundries in Kolkata famous as industrial casting manufacturers, Govind Steel is one of them. Govind Steel is one of the largest and leading foundries for Grey Iron Castings and Ductile Iron Castings in India. To know more about the same, kindly visit –

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All About Metal Castings – The process, different types and more

In the history of industrial manufacturing techniques, casting is the oldest one. However, modern advancements in technology have led to a host of casting methods and techniques. But before we get into that, here is what casting actually is. It is a process that allows molten metal to be poured in a specially designed mold to take various shapes Read more